The Earth provides resources that are exploitable by humans for useful purposes. Some of these are non-renewable resources, such as mineral fuels, that are difficult to replenish on a short time scale.

Large deposits of fossil fuels are obtained from the Earth’s crust, consisting of coal, petroleum, natural gas and methane clatter. These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feed stock for chemical production. Mineral ore bodies have also been formed in Earth’s crust through a process of Ore genesis, resulting from actions of erosion and plate tectonics.These bodies form concentrated sources for many metals and other useful elements.

The Earth’s biosphere produces many useful biological products for humans, including (but far from limited to) food, wood, pharmaceuticals, oxygen, and the recycling of many organic wastes. The land-based ecosystem depends upon topsoil and fresh water, and the oceanic ecosystem depends upon dissolved nutrients washed down from the land. In 1980, 5,053 Mha of the Earth’s land surface consisted of forest and woodlands, 6,788 Mha were grasslands and pasture, and 1,501 Mha was cultivated as croplands.The estimated amount of irrigated land in 1993 was 2,481,250 square kilometres (958,020 sq mi). Humans also live on the land by using building materials to construct shelters.